Whether you're making photocopies to be distributed in class, uploading material to Blackboard or showing a film clip to your students, it is your responsibility to ensure that any copyright material used in your teaching at UEA:
- complies with sections 32-36 of the Copyright Act 1988, or
- complies with the relevant licence, if there is one, or
- you have the explicit permission of the copyright owner to use their material.
UK copyright law allows limited copying (i.e. short extracts only) of copyright work for the purposes of teaching. Works may be copied in any medium, provided:
Small amounts of copyright material, for example quotations or short audio or video clips, can be included in Blackboard, so long as the use is required for educational purposes and does not exceed fair dealing.
Where larger amounts of copyright material are required, for example, a book chapter or journal article, the University's licences may enable copies to be added to Blackboard.
As a general rule it is better to link directly to an electronic resource rather than reproducing it on Blackboard. Linking ensures the student is directed to the content they are entitled to access and enables the Library to track usage of subscription resources. Look for permanent or stable URLs when copying links.
Scanning books and journal articles for use in Blackboard
The University's CLA licence allows for the copying and uploading to Blackboard of many (but not all) print and digital book chapters and journal articles.
There are limits to what can be copied for use in Blackboard and all copies made must be centrally recorded and reported to the CLA. The UEA Library provides a digitising service to UEA staff who want to make the Library's resources available to their students via Blackboard. Further details about this service can be found on the Digitising Teaching Materials web page.
The Digitising Teaching Materials web page also contains information on the requirements for making your own copies for use in Blackboard. N.B. If you are making your own copies you must ensure the work is covered by our licence (you can check permissions on the CLA site) and report each one using the online scanning form. Where a module is not to be repeated in future years, digital copies must be removed at end of the module.
Much of the copyright material used at UEA in course/study packs and handouts is covered by the University's Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) licence.
The amount of copyright material that can be copied and distributed in handouts and course/study packs under the 2016-19 CLA licence during any one module is as follows. The greater of:
- 10% of any published edition
- one complete chapter of a book
- one article in an issue of a periodical or set of conference proceedings
- one poem or short story not exceeding 10 pages in length from a collection or anthology
- the report of a single case from a volume of published law reports.
The number of copies made should not exceed that needed to ensure that every student on the module and the teacher(s) of the module each have a single copy. Copies of course/study packs should be clearly labelled on the cover and first page of text with the academic year in which they were created and carry a notice to the effect that they may not be copied or resold.
For further guidance, the CLA have produced a good practice guide on the creation of coursepacks.
Photocopies used in teaching should be labelled indicating their origin as follows:
- copied directly from an original item in Library's own stock, or
- supplied by another library under Section 41 of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988, or
- supplied 'copyright fee-paid' by the British Library Document Supply Centre or a similar document supply service, with the original document supply cover sheet attached, or
- otherwise copied with the written consent of the rights holder(s), with a copy of the consent readily available
There is no longer an overarching exception to copyright law for material used for the purposes of examination.
If you wish to use copyright material in the process of setting your examinations (including a summative piece of coursework) use should be limited to what would be considered fair dealing for the purposes of 'illustration for instruction', or is otherwise covered by UEA licences.
If you need to use copyright work in ways that would exceed fair dealing and is not covered by our licences, you will need to seek permission of the rights holder (see Copyright and your research for further details).
Broadcasts, including broadcasts of musical performances, can be recorded off-air for educational purposes. At UEA most off-air recording is subject to licence.
UEA also subscribes to the Box of Broadcasts service, which includes UK off-air TV and radio programmes including news, films and documentaries.
Short excerpts from films and videos can now be copied for general teaching purposes, as well as by those giving or receiving instruction in the course of teaching the techniques of making films and film soundtracks.
Off-air broadcasts, musical recordings and films can be shown for educational purposes to UEA staff and registered students on UEA premises, but they cannot be shown to the general public, unless permitted by licence.
Excerpts from films, videos and sound recordings can also be copied for examination purposes and for criticism and review.
If material intended to be copied and made available as a teaching resource is requested through a document supply service (via an inter-library loan), the original request should clearly state the fact. On no account should material supplied on the basis of a private study/research declaration be copied and distributed to students, electronically or in paper copy.
It may be possible to purchase a 'copyright fee paid' copy of the required article or chapter, which would enable you to distribute copies to students. If you require a 'copyright fee paid' copy of an article or book chapter please contact your Faculty Librarian or the Library's Interlending department.
Since October 2014, a limited amount of a copyright work(s) can be amended or reused for the purpose of creating a caricature, parody or pastiche, without seeking permission of the rights holder. As with other copyright exceptions, the amount that can be copied is limited to that which would be considered fair dealing.
UEA offers online copyright training specifically for academic staff. The module, which takes less than an hour to complete, can be accessed using the instructions on our information compliance Training and Resources page.